After the arrival of monsoon, primary tillage operations have been started until mid of June in India. Crop planting operations also carried out just next to primary tillage operations. Crop planting operations involve placing seed or tubers in the soil at a predetermined depth. Farmers in India used traditional methods to sow the seeds like broadcasting, sowing with bull or manual operated seed drill, and by drawing line at field to sow according to it by laborers. But with traditional methods, some error also takes place like ununiformed pattern, time-consuming operations, high amount of manpower required, and uneven sowing. To reduce all these issues farm mechanization, provide machines to sow uniformed, on time, and at low cost. Machines that place the seed in the soil and cover it in the definite row called sowing equipment. As per seeds of different crops this sowing machinery also different from each other for the specific crops. Sowing equipment classified in different types like seed drill, planter, etc. Some types of seed drills and planters are discussed below…
- Seed- Cum- Fertilizer Drill-
The Seed -cum-Fertilizer Drill equipped with seedbox and fertilizer box separately. Seed and Fertilizer rate adjusting lever helps to maintain the ratio of appropriate proportion for seed and fertilizer. With the help of fluted rollers in the seedbox, receive seeds into longitudinal grooves and seed dropped in the seed tube, which gets ended with a furrow opener. Reversible shovel type furrow opener used in this seed -cum – fertilizer drill. By shifting the roller sideways, the length of grooves exposed to the seed can be increased or decreased, and hence the amount of seed sown can be varied. Seed -cum- fertilizer drill can be used for the sowing of wheat and other cereal crops.
- Zero – Till Drill
The Zero – Till Drill equipped with the frame, seedbox, fertilizer box, fertilizer metering mechanism, seed tubes, furrow opener, and transport cum power transmitting wheel. The frame is made from a mild steel section. The tynes are equipped with the help of clamps, to obtain infinite row spacing. The main difference between a zero-till drill and conventional drill is that it has an inverted T – type furrow opener which helps to reduce the formation of clods, lower draft requirements, and easier penetration of soil. Zero – till-drills are used for sowing wheat in an unprepared field after harvesting of paddy, which reduces the initial cost for land or bed preparation.
- Tractor Mounted Ridger Seeder
It is a tractor-drawn implement which forms ridge and furrows and carries out sowing either on the ridge, a side of the ridge or on the furrows as required. This type of seed drill consists of seed hopper, fertilizer hopper, seed metering mechanism, fertilizer metering mechanism, drive system, drive wheels, hitch system, ridge bodies, furrow opener, transport wheel and sturdy frame made of mild steel sections. The ridge body consists of two mouldboards and share mounted at the front. The wingspan of the ridge can be adjusted to vary the width of the furrow and ridge. Seed and fertilizer metering units receive power from the ground wheel through the chain and sprocket system. During operation, ridges having a flat top are formed by the ridge bodies on which the seed is sown. This seeder is used for making ridges and furrows and carries out sowing either on the ridge or furrows.
- Tractor Drawn Cultivator Seeder
This type seed drill is an attachment available tractor-mounted cultivator for direct sowing of paddy in dryland conditions. It is composed of a seedbox, seed metering disc, ground wheel, cultivator shovel, furrow closer, clutch lever, power drive system, and frame. The seed metering mechanism consists of discs fitted with cups mounted close to its periphery. During operations, discs rotate, the cup picks up rice seeds. This type of new implement is used for sowing paddy in dryland conditions.
- Seed -Cum – Fertilizer Drill with Planter Attachments
In this include plate planter, planting attachment has been attached to the commercially available seed-cum-fertilizer drills. The planting attachment consists of a hopper, plate metering mechanism fitted in the hopper, furrow openers, ground wheel, power transmission mechanism, and seed tubes. For operation seed is filled in the hopper, seeds are picked up by the cells of the inclined plate and delivered in the opening connected to the furrow opener. It can plant 6-row groundnuts at a spacing of 30 cm in addition to the number of other crops like maize, cotton, soybean, sunflower, etc. Seed metering mechanism in planting attachments is of inclined plate type with notched cells for each row. Row to row spacing and plant to plant spacing is adjustable. Plant to plant spacing can vary by changing the transmission ratio. The drive to the metering mechanism is given through the wheel by means of chains, sprockets, and bevel gears. This is inclined plate planters are used for sowing bold grains like maize, soybean, groundnut, and cotton, etc. The plates need to be changed for planting different crops.
Conclusion– Sowing equipment is a great solution for Indian farmers to reduce issues faced with traditional sowing methods. Different types of seed drills and planters are available at khetigaadi.com with their price, go and check it at the New Implement and Latest Implement page.