Agriculture Mechanisation : India produces more than 550 million tonnes of crop residue every year, and that the highest producers of this crop residue are Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, and Punjab. The illegal burning of crop stubble is contributing a major part in the trending pollution issue in Delhi. As per the report of SAFAR, the contribution of stubble burning in Delhi’s pollution rose up to 46 percent with farm fires continuing in Haryana and Punjab. The air in Delhi consists of 20 times more polluting particles than the World Health Organization recommends. The economic and health costs to tackle this are estimated to be $30 billion in a single season which is 1.5 times the Indian budget for health and education.
Indian Farmers farming practices for harvesting rice and wheat are highly mechanized. These practices leave a large amount of scattered, root-bound paddy straw in the field after the harvest. Rice straw, which has silica content in large amounts, is considered to be poor feed; it has no other local economic use. Farmers have only 15- 21 days between harvesting paddy and planting the next crop. Since that is not enough time to clear and prepare the fields, and removing the rice straw left in the field, so that they burn the paddy residue (stubble). It is a common residue management practice among farmers in India. The time constraint and the labour-intensive nature of removing the rice straw have led to the mechanization of harvesting, which has, in turn, aggravated the paddy residue management issue.
Crop residue management aims to achieve sustainable and profitable agriculture and subsequently aims at improved livelihoods of farmers through these simple techniques and farm Implement. Agriculture Mechanization has been defined in a number of ways by different people. Mechanization is a key input in any farming system.
Happy seeder is tractor-mounted implement that cuts and lift up the residue of rice plants wheat seeds into the bare soil, and deposits the paddy straw over the plant area as mulch.
With the help of Happy Seeder farmers no longer need to till the land to plant their wheat. Instead, farmers can save their expenses on ploughing rotavator and land preparation. It is recommended to sow wheat crop after rice harvesting, with the help of happy seeder farmer can get more time for preparation as happy seeder does many activities at the same time. Keeping rice residue and changes in tillage practices reduces evapotranspiration losses, which could reduce irrigation water use in wheat in addition to buffering soil moisture, soil temperature, which in turn offers more crop yield as compared with traditional practices. Considering Economic, Environmental, Agronomic benefits of happy seeder government also taking initiative and giving 50 to 80 percent subsidy on happy seeder. New Holland Happy Seeder, Dasmesh Happy Seeder, Fieldking Happy Seeder are some options that you buy with government subsidy.
Mulcher is a tractor operated post-harvest implement which helps clear remains of the harvested plants. Mulcher does 3 operations at one time i.e. cutting, chopping and mixing with soil clear the field which prepare land for the next sowing season. It works on the surface of the soil hence does not harm the soil, which helps to improve the fertility of soil. In Mulcher Knives are jointed on the roller which rotates vertically and shreds crop residue and weeds, cutting height can be adjusted by two wheels at the back of the machine. Mulching operation reduces weed growth as well as water requirements of the crop is also less. Mahindra Mulcher, Maschio Mulcher, Shaktiman Mulcher are mostly used brands by Indian Farmers.
Zero Till drill:
With the significant increase in the adoption of zero-tillage and bed planting technologies in several areas of India, zero-till seed-cum-fertilizer drill has become a very useful and important agricultural farm equipment for the farmers. It helps farmers to seed a crop directly into the cultivated field just after the harvest of the previous crop with the least disturbance of the soil. It eliminates or reduces time and energy intensive conventional tillage operations reducing the cultivation costs and risk of Phalaris minor in wheat apart from improving crop yields and farmers profits. Farmers can use Dasmesh Zero Till Drill, Swan Zero Till, Fieldking Zero Till Drill for better results.
Tractor rake is an agricultural equipment used to collect, turn or spread any other type of previously cut forage. This tractor equipment can work only if installed on any agricultural tractor as long as provided with 3-point universal coupling and hydraulic lift. Its functioning is obtained for effect of its dragging by the machine towing it. For using Hay Rake tractors must be provided with protective roll-bar or ROPS approved cabins, as per Standards for safety purpose. Farmers from Punjab are using New Holland Rake for making good quality Balers.
Baling crop residues into round or rectangular bales are the most important step in handling crop residue for other applications i.e. Biofuel, crop fodder and raw material for paper manufacturing. With the use of balers it becomes more convenient for manual and mechanical handling of hay. Tractor Baler turns crop residue into bales which can be used as animal feeding as well as this can be stored for harder dry days easily so that farmers also have a backup plan for their dairy farming. It also gives farmers extra income by selling these bales to power plants. Farmer can use New Holland Balers for Better results.
Conservation agriculture is a new term to farmers. It will take some time to change their thought process that how they use equipment and apply water and weedicides. And it will require information, training and incentives to motivate farmers to try new technology. Also public extension services and private institutions will need to adjust to deliver the Happy Seeder and make it available at large scales.
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